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    A gorgeous, well written, and infinitely fascinating book about the personal history and changing views of the Gikuyu women and female genital cutting. - The Socio-Economic Situation of Gikuyu Women in Naro Moru Location. Petra Pircher,. Kartoniert (TB) - Buch. Bücher bei 3kilimanjaro.se: Jetzt The Socio-Economic Situation of Gikuyu Women in Naro Moru Location von Petra Pircher versandkostenfrei bestellen bei. Gikuyu and Mumbi Women, Nairobi. Nyakìnywa Nini - When one of her children gets married, then the woman graduates to the stage of Nyakìnyea Nini. Gikuyu and Mumbi Women, Nairobi. Gefällt Mal · Personen sprechen darüber. This page was created to locate, unite, inform and celebrate Agikuyu.

    Gikuyu women

    12 Women ' s status was acquired through their roles as wives and mothers and Nevertheless, Gikuyu women did not inherit or own property although they. A gorgeous, well written, and infinitely fascinating book about the personal history and changing views of the Gikuyu women and female genital cutting. Gikuyu and Mumbi Women, Nairobi. Nyakìnywa Nini - When one of her children gets married, then the woman graduates to the stage of Nyakìnyea Nini.

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    Adventskalender "Kerzenzauber" 4. Ken Follett. Keine Kommentare vorhanden Jetzt bewerten. Some thought provoking Proverbs - Thimo. Celebrating Professor Wangari Maathai who passed on September 25th, Photo credit to Mukuyu. Gikuyu women Another traditional folk art is the manufacture of figurines made from local materials such as clay, discarded wire, and grass. Pottery provided for household needs. The ruling generations are however uniform and provide Asian naturist important chronological data. This is the area where significant cash Gikuyu women Big boob porno grown, including pyrethrum a flower that produces a natural insecticidecoffee and tea. The antelope hooves Teen girls nackt on the lower border. European clothing is now commonplace throughout Gikuyuland. This is probably okay for the Northerner Asia carrea in winter but certainly suicidal for an African. Well-built homes sometimes lasted for ten Couples play strip poker or more, although rethatching the roof Schwul abspritzen an annual event. Answers Africa. The Gikuyu typically celebrate the same holidays as other Kenyans see Kenyans.

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    How do you help them increase profits? These are respected among the people and they give direction in matters concerning their culture and values.

    The Kikuyu Tribe has over the years, produced very influential and notable personalities in Kenya. Three out of the four presidents that have ruled Kenya since after independence were all from Kikuyu.

    Notable Kenyans from Kikuyu include among others:. The Kikuyu people speak their mother tongue, the Kikuyu language which they have a great love for.

    Although Kenya has two national languages; English and Kiswahili same as Swahili , Kikuyu is considered to be the third due to its popularity all over the country.

    The original music of native Kikuyus is believed to be extinct. What is mostly available now is its recreation which embraces modern styles to accommodate present-day listeners.

    As for the lyrics of Mugithi, it always centres on the society and politics. The music is mostly used at ceremonies and clubs and is enjoyed not only in Kenya but in some other countries where Kenyans have migrated to.

    Kikuyu women are largely known to be beautiful, hardworking, confident and self-reliant , economically and otherwise. However, these qualities are said to be sometimes misinterpreted to mean lack of submissiveness to the men, thus earning them a negative stereotype that leaves some of them unmarried.

    Even when they are married, it is also said to have led to divorce on many occasions, with a good number of Kikuyu women noted to be single mothers.

    There is evidence that Gikuyus have more individual choice in these matters today. However, some Gikuyu have lost their sense of community responsibility so cherished in the past.

    In the past, boys were organized into groups of local boys who had been initiated at the same time. These were grouped into larger groupings, called regiments.

    Boys in a common group or regiment proceeded through life together and exercised authority over groups and regiments coming after them. Detailed rules governed the roles of various age or generational groupings in the realms of dating and procreation, defense, and social structure.

    The Gikuyu enjoy the abundant natural resources provided by the central highlands of Kenya. Due to the altitude, much of the region is free of malarial mosquitoes and the tsetse and other flies that spread human and animal diseases.

    The Gikuyu have had success in commercial farming and in many other businesses. Some Gikuyu now own large estates and live an affluent lifestyle.

    However, many other Gikuyu live in slums, which have grown rapidly in urban areas, especially Nairobi.

    Thousands of homeless street children have come to Nairobi from Gikuyu towns where they suffered from family dislocation and poverty. In the past, traditional Gikuyu houses were round with wooden walls and grass thatched roofs.

    Neighbors generally helped in the construction of a home in exchange for beer and meat. Building supplies were collected from local materials.

    A husband and wife typically lived in separate houses. The woman's house had space for her children and her sheep and goats. Well-built homes sometimes lasted for ten years or more, although rethatching the roof was an annual event.

    Traditionally, the Gikuyu preferred large families living in big compounds. It was considered a religious obligation to have children.

    Four children—two boys and two girls—was the ideal. Boys were desirable because they carried on the family name, which was passed on through the male line.

    Girls were desired so the family could collect bride wealth gifts to her family from her husband-to-be's family , which could in turn be used to obtain wives for their brothers.

    A married woman became more powerful as she bore more children. Her children stayed with her in her home, separate from their father.

    Polygyny one man having multiple wives was valued as a means to provide large families. Women, too, often preferred polygyny to monogamy one man and one woman ; they often helped their husbands find younger wives.

    Elder wives had clear authority over younger wives and supervised them in affairs of the compound.

    Events leading to marriage began with an initial meeting of the aspiring son-in-law with his perspective parents-in-law. The young woman's agreement was required at this meeting before events could proceed.

    Later stages included parental visits, exchanges of goods as bride wealth, and finally the young woman moving into the home of her husband.

    The marriage itself was finalized when, prior to moving in with her husband's family, the young man and his relatives visited the young woman's house bearing special gifts.

    Today, marriage no longer involves these traditional rituals and exchanges. Nevertheless, there is still bride wealth, significant involvement of parents in the choice of their children's spouses, and the high value placed on having children.

    Marriage ceremonies no longer involve Gikuyu religious rituals, which have given way to Christian and Islamic marriage practices.

    In the past, Gikuyu adults dressed in animal skins, especially sheep and goat skins. Skin tanning was a vital industry for which many men were renowned as specialists.

    Women's clothing includes three pieces—an upper garment, a skirt, and an apron. Men wore a single garment covering the entire body. Young men preferred bare legs made possible by wearing short skirts, especially those made from kidskin lambskin or goatskin because of its smooth hairs.

    Elders wore more elaborate costumes—often made of fur. European clothing is now commonplace throughout Gikuyuland.

    In rural areas, women wear multicolored cotton dresses or skirts and blouses. Men generally wear Western-style trousers and shirts with jackets and ties for formal occasions.

    Women who prefer to dress in African fashion wear long pieces of colorful cloth as skirts and wrapped around a dress. Farm produce and meat are abundant and provide excellent nutrition.

    Maize corn made into a thick porridge, called ugali , is the national dish of Kenya. See recipe in article on Kenyans. Ugali is eaten with meat, stews, or traditional greens known as sukuma wiki.

    Irio, a Gikuyu dish, is a mixture of the kernels from cooked green corn boiled with beans, potatoes, and chopped greens.

    In the past, beer brewing was a cooperative activity between men and women. Beer was made from sugarcane, maize, and millet. Gourds were used to contain the strained juices for fermenting.

    Today, bottled beverages generally have replaced traditional beer for daily and social consumption. Distilleries in Kenya provide an assortment of beer and soft drinks.

    Eating meat is standard for all ceremonial occasions. A popular meal, especially on Sundays, is nyama choma roasted meat.

    Goat meat is the most popular choice, although it is more expensive than beef. Chicken is also a regular treat. In the past, the Gikuyu had a ceremonial calendar that involved feasting.

    Boiled and roasted meat were eaten on these occasions, and beer was the beverage of choice. Although the traditional ceremonial calendar is largely a thing of the past, Gikuyu maintain an intensely social existence involving regular attendance at funerals and weddings.

    These events are always accompanied by an abundant supply of meat and bottled beverages. Traditionally, children were taught through an educational process that began very early in the life cycle.

    Infants were sung lullabies emphasizing tribal values. As a child grew, he or she listened intently to tales, riddles, and proverbs having moral messages.

    Even after the advent of formal schools during the colonial era, a special time was set aside for the telling of folktales.

    In the past, boys played games emphasizing leadership roles that involved bows and arrows, spears, and slings to teach marksmanship skills.

    Girls cooked imaginary dishes and played at making pots and grinding grains. Dolls, made with local clay and grass, were also standard play items for girls.

    As children matured, boys were trained by their adult male relatives, and girls by their mothers, grandmothers, and older sisters. For example, boys were taught to differentiate large herds of cattle or goats by their color, size, and horn texture.

    Fathers and grandfathers also taught youngsters the boundaries of their land, techniques for preparing land for farming, and family genealogy.

    Mothers taught girls about crops, soils, weather and other significant details of food production. Today, the traditional informal educational system has been mostly replaced by formal education.

    In Kenya, including Gikuyuland, there has been an attempt in recent years to make formal education more sensitive to traditional values and knowledge.

    A hazard of teaching only modern subject matter is that traditional wisdom—such as, for example, knowledge about wild plants potentially edible during famine—becomes lost to future generations.

    Reaching a reasonable balance between the old and the new in the school curriculum is a constant challenge faced by Gikuyu educators.

    Harambee which means "let's pull together" primary and secondary schools are being built throughout Gikuyuland and elsewhere in Kenya. The literacy rate percentage of people able to read or write in Kenya is about 50 percent, but it is lower in Gikuyuland.

    Music and dance, along with storytelling, were all emphasized in the past. Dancing by men and women was mandatory at initiation ceremonies, weddings, and other public events.

    People of all ages enjoyed dancing. There were three kinds of musical instruments in the past: drums, flutes, and rattles.

    The last were used for private pleasure, while drums and flutes were played publicly at dances. Song was woven into the fabric of everyday life.

    There were songs for babies; songs sung by girls while threshing millet; songs sung by boys while practicing archery; songs sung by families and community members during weddings and funerals; songs sung by community members and initiates during ceremonies; songs about everyday problems of life and love that were sung around the campfire; songs for drinking; songs about cultural heroes both past and present; and songs sung in praise of ancestors and the High God, Ngai.

    Written literature includes children's literature, which recount tribal stories and tales. One such book, titled Nyumba ya Mumbi, graphically illustrates the Gikuyu creation myth.

    Perhaps the most famous twentieth-century writer is Ngugi wa Thiong'o, whose many stories, plays, and novels have chronicled the Gikuyu struggle for national identity.

    In the past, there was a very strong division of labor by gender. Nevertheless, men and women worked together as well as separately in tasks that complemented each other.

    Each woman had her own plots of land where she cultivated crops such as sweet potatoes, millet, maize corn , and beans. Men were responsible for heavy labor, such as clearing the land and cutting down trees.

    Household tasks for women involved maintaining granaries and supervising the feeding of sheep, goats, and cows. A polygynous husband one with multiple wives had his own hut apart from his wives where he ate with friends or his children and was served food by his wives.

    On a daily basis, women, together with their children, collected firewood, water, and produce from the garden. There was also a division of labor by gender concerning industries.

    Some men were ironsmiths, manufacturing knives, arrowheads, bracelets, axes, hammers, spears, and other utilitarian tools. Only women were potters. Pottery provided for household needs.

    Women also excelled in making baskets. Men tended to specialize in skin tanning. The informal educational system of the Gikuyu involved children and young people learning economic tasks from adults and specialists through direct observation and often apprenticeship.

    Today, the Gikuyu remain intensely agricultural and devoted to their land. Cash crops are now significant, but the traditional division of agricultural labor is still very much in place.

    Through formal education and accumulation of private assets, many Gikuyu are now wealthy and enjoy affluent lifestyles.

    Professional occupations, as well as employment in factories and other working-class jobs, now differentiate the Gikuyu into social categories based on income.

    Nevertheless, among most Gikuyu, there is still a strong sense of ethnic solidarity and shared cultural heritage.

    Throughout Gikuyuland, schools sponsor competitive sports for boys and girls. Spectators enjoy soccer football and track and field. In the past, Gikuyu boys enjoyed games such as wrestling, weightlifting, and club throwing.

    There were district mock fights pitting young boys from each area against their counterparts from elsewhere.

    Wrestling produced stars who were widely praised throughout the country.

    Gikuyu Women Video

    Women Of Kikuyu Tribe And Ancestry We hereby present three fine antique photographs of Kikuyu women from the three traditional regions of Kikuyuland, Gaki – Nyeri, Metumi – Murang'a, and. Voices from Mutira: Lives of Rural Gikuyu Women von Davison, Jean bei 3kilimanjaro.se - ISBN - ISBN - Lynne Rienner. 12 Women ' s status was acquired through their roles as wives and mothers and Nevertheless, Gikuyu women did not inherit or own property although they.

    Gikuyu Women Video

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    A special feast is made for the parents of the children. The day before the operation, there is a ceremonial dance known as matuuro. The next day the physical operations occur.

    Both boys and girls are expected to endure circumcision without crying or showing signs of weakness. Many elder Gikuyu people still maintain strong relationships with others with whom they were initiated.

    While mandatory painful initiation ceremonies are increasingly becoming a thing of the past, many Kenyans are troubled by what they perceive to be a rising tide of individualism and lack of peer group solidarity among the young.

    Young people today in Kenya must work out for themselves how to combine old customs with modern ones. This issue is a prominent theme and is the subject of stories, plays, and other programs on Kenya radio and television.

    The local community, school, and church are central to Gikuyu social relations. Dating, courtship, friendship, and family life are significant concerns around which people construct their social lives.

    In the past, social life was dominated by rules about age hierarchies and gender distinction. There is evidence that Gikuyus have more individual choice in these matters today.

    However, some Gikuyu have lost their sense of community responsibility so cherished in the past. In the past, boys were organized into groups of local boys who had been initiated at the same time.

    These were grouped into larger groupings, called regiments. Boys in a common group or regiment proceeded through life together and exercised authority over groups and regiments coming after them.

    Detailed rules governed the roles of various age or generational groupings in the realms of dating and procreation, defense, and social structure.

    The Gikuyu enjoy the abundant natural resources provided by the central highlands of Kenya. Due to the altitude, much of the region is free of malarial mosquitoes and the tsetse and other flies that spread human and animal diseases.

    The Gikuyu have had success in commercial farming and in many other businesses. Some Gikuyu now own large estates and live an affluent lifestyle.

    However, many other Gikuyu live in slums, which have grown rapidly in urban areas, especially Nairobi. Thousands of homeless street children have come to Nairobi from Gikuyu towns where they suffered from family dislocation and poverty.

    In the past, traditional Gikuyu houses were round with wooden walls and grass thatched roofs. Neighbors generally helped in the construction of a home in exchange for beer and meat.

    Building supplies were collected from local materials. A husband and wife typically lived in separate houses. The woman's house had space for her children and her sheep and goats.

    Well-built homes sometimes lasted for ten years or more, although rethatching the roof was an annual event.

    Traditionally, the Gikuyu preferred large families living in big compounds. It was considered a religious obligation to have children. Four children—two boys and two girls—was the ideal.

    Boys were desirable because they carried on the family name, which was passed on through the male line. Girls were desired so the family could collect bride wealth gifts to her family from her husband-to-be's family , which could in turn be used to obtain wives for their brothers.

    A married woman became more powerful as she bore more children. Her children stayed with her in her home, separate from their father. Polygyny one man having multiple wives was valued as a means to provide large families.

    Women, too, often preferred polygyny to monogamy one man and one woman ; they often helped their husbands find younger wives.

    Elder wives had clear authority over younger wives and supervised them in affairs of the compound. Events leading to marriage began with an initial meeting of the aspiring son-in-law with his perspective parents-in-law.

    The young woman's agreement was required at this meeting before events could proceed. Later stages included parental visits, exchanges of goods as bride wealth, and finally the young woman moving into the home of her husband.

    The marriage itself was finalized when, prior to moving in with her husband's family, the young man and his relatives visited the young woman's house bearing special gifts.

    Today, marriage no longer involves these traditional rituals and exchanges. Nevertheless, there is still bride wealth, significant involvement of parents in the choice of their children's spouses, and the high value placed on having children.

    Marriage ceremonies no longer involve Gikuyu religious rituals, which have given way to Christian and Islamic marriage practices.

    In the past, Gikuyu adults dressed in animal skins, especially sheep and goat skins. Skin tanning was a vital industry for which many men were renowned as specialists.

    Women's clothing includes three pieces—an upper garment, a skirt, and an apron. Men wore a single garment covering the entire body.

    Young men preferred bare legs made possible by wearing short skirts, especially those made from kidskin lambskin or goatskin because of its smooth hairs.

    Elders wore more elaborate costumes—often made of fur. European clothing is now commonplace throughout Gikuyuland.

    In rural areas, women wear multicolored cotton dresses or skirts and blouses. Men generally wear Western-style trousers and shirts with jackets and ties for formal occasions.

    Women who prefer to dress in African fashion wear long pieces of colorful cloth as skirts and wrapped around a dress. Farm produce and meat are abundant and provide excellent nutrition.

    Maize corn made into a thick porridge, called ugali , is the national dish of Kenya. See recipe in article on Kenyans. Ugali is eaten with meat, stews, or traditional greens known as sukuma wiki.

    Irio, a Gikuyu dish, is a mixture of the kernels from cooked green corn boiled with beans, potatoes, and chopped greens. In the past, beer brewing was a cooperative activity between men and women.

    Beer was made from sugarcane, maize, and millet. Gourds were used to contain the strained juices for fermenting. Today, bottled beverages generally have replaced traditional beer for daily and social consumption.

    Distilleries in Kenya provide an assortment of beer and soft drinks. Eating meat is standard for all ceremonial occasions. A popular meal, especially on Sundays, is nyama choma roasted meat.

    Goat meat is the most popular choice, although it is more expensive than beef. Chicken is also a regular treat.

    In the past, the Gikuyu had a ceremonial calendar that involved feasting. Boiled and roasted meat were eaten on these occasions, and beer was the beverage of choice.

    Although the traditional ceremonial calendar is largely a thing of the past, Gikuyu maintain an intensely social existence involving regular attendance at funerals and weddings.

    These events are always accompanied by an abundant supply of meat and bottled beverages. Traditionally, children were taught through an educational process that began very early in the life cycle.

    Infants were sung lullabies emphasizing tribal values. As a child grew, he or she listened intently to tales, riddles, and proverbs having moral messages.

    Even after the advent of formal schools during the colonial era, a special time was set aside for the telling of folktales.

    In the past, boys played games emphasizing leadership roles that involved bows and arrows, spears, and slings to teach marksmanship skills.

    Girls cooked imaginary dishes and played at making pots and grinding grains. Dolls, made with local clay and grass, were also standard play items for girls.

    As children matured, boys were trained by their adult male relatives, and girls by their mothers, grandmothers, and older sisters.

    For example, boys were taught to differentiate large herds of cattle or goats by their color, size, and horn texture. Fathers and grandfathers also taught youngsters the boundaries of their land, techniques for preparing land for farming, and family genealogy.

    Mothers taught girls about crops, soils, weather and other significant details of food production. Today, the traditional informal educational system has been mostly replaced by formal education.

    In Kenya, including Gikuyuland, there has been an attempt in recent years to make formal education more sensitive to traditional values and knowledge.

    A hazard of teaching only modern subject matter is that traditional wisdom—such as, for example, knowledge about wild plants potentially edible during famine—becomes lost to future generations.

    Reaching a reasonable balance between the old and the new in the school curriculum is a constant challenge faced by Gikuyu educators.

    Harambee which means "let's pull together" primary and secondary schools are being built throughout Gikuyuland and elsewhere in Kenya.

    The literacy rate percentage of people able to read or write in Kenya is about 50 percent, but it is lower in Gikuyuland.

    Music and dance, along with storytelling, were all emphasized in the past. Dancing by men and women was mandatory at initiation ceremonies, weddings, and other public events.

    People of all ages enjoyed dancing. There were three kinds of musical instruments in the past: drums, flutes, and rattles.

    The last were used for private pleasure, while drums and flutes were played publicly at dances. Song was woven into the fabric of everyday life.

    There were songs for babies; songs sung by girls while threshing millet; songs sung by boys while practicing archery; songs sung by families and community members during weddings and funerals; songs sung by community members and initiates during ceremonies; songs about everyday problems of life and love that were sung around the campfire; songs for drinking; songs about cultural heroes both past and present; and songs sung in praise of ancestors and the High God, Ngai.

    Written literature includes children's literature, which recount tribal stories and tales. One such book, titled Nyumba ya Mumbi, graphically illustrates the Gikuyu creation myth.

    Perhaps the most famous twentieth-century writer is Ngugi wa Thiong'o, whose many stories, plays, and novels have chronicled the Gikuyu struggle for national identity.

    In the past, there was a very strong division of labor by gender. Nevertheless, men and women worked together as well as separately in tasks that complemented each other.

    Each woman had her own plots of land where she cultivated crops such as sweet potatoes, millet, maize corn , and beans.

    Men were responsible for heavy labor, such as clearing the land and cutting down trees. Household tasks for women involved maintaining granaries and supervising the feeding of sheep, goats, and cows.

    A polygynous husband one with multiple wives had his own hut apart from his wives where he ate with friends or his children and was served food by his wives.

    On a daily basis, women, together with their children, collected firewood, water, and produce from the garden. There was also a division of labor by gender concerning industries.

    Some men were ironsmiths, manufacturing knives, arrowheads, bracelets, axes, hammers, spears, and other utilitarian tools.

    Only women were potters. Pottery provided for household needs. Women also excelled in making baskets. Men tended to specialize in skin tanning.

    The original music of native Kikuyus is believed to be extinct. What is mostly available now is its recreation which embraces modern styles to accommodate present-day listeners.

    As for the lyrics of Mugithi, it always centres on the society and politics. The music is mostly used at ceremonies and clubs and is enjoyed not only in Kenya but in some other countries where Kenyans have migrated to.

    Kikuyu women are largely known to be beautiful, hardworking, confident and self-reliant , economically and otherwise. However, these qualities are said to be sometimes misinterpreted to mean lack of submissiveness to the men, thus earning them a negative stereotype that leaves some of them unmarried.

    Even when they are married, it is also said to have led to divorce on many occasions, with a good number of Kikuyu women noted to be single mothers.

    In Kikuyu, each family lives together in what is commonly known as a homestead. Men and women live in different houses, and two married women cannot inhabit one house.

    In it, she lives together with her children and yet-to-be-married girls. Religion: The Kikuyus believe in their creator, God who they call Ngai and also in the spiritual presence of their ancestors.

    The people are also superstitious, with many of them retaining some practices like the taboo against whistling, unlucky numbers such as 10, and so on.

    However, the majority of Kikuyus are now Christians. Their language is most closely related to that of the Embu and Mbeere. Geographically, they are concentrated in the vicinity of Mount Kenya.

    The exact place that the Northeast Bantu speakers migrated from after the initial Bantu expansion is uncertain.

    Some authorities suggest that the Kikuyu arrived in their present Mount Kenya area of habitation from earlier settlements further to the north and east, [3] while others argue that the Kikuyu, along with their closely related Eastern Bantu neighbors the Embu , Meru , Mbeere , and Kamba moved into Kenya from points further north.

    From archaeological evidence, their arrival at the northern side of Mt. Kenya dates to around the 3rd century, as part of the larger group known as Thagicu.

    By the 6th century, there was a community of Agikuyu newly established at Gatung'ang'a in Nyeri. The Agikuyu established themselves in their current homeland of Mt.

    Kenya region by the 13th century. Each clan traced its lineage to a single female ancestor and a daughter of Mumbi. Some clans had a recognised leader, others did not.

    Each clan then forwarded the leader of its council to the apex council of elders for the whole community.

    The overall council of elders representing all the clans, was then led by a headman or the nation's spokesman. The title Mwathani or Mwathi the greatest ruler comes from the word gwatha meaning to rule or reign with authority, was and is still used.

    Ngai or Mwene-Nyaga is the Supreme Creator and giver of all things. Ngai cannot be seen but is manifested in the sun, moon, stars, comets and meteors, thunder and lightning, rain, rainbows, and in the great fig trees Mugumo.

    Thunder is interpreted to be the movement of Ngai and lightning is the weapon used by Ngai to clear the way when moving from one sacred place to another.

    Some people believe that Ngai's abode is on Mount Kenya. In one legend, Ngai made the mountain his resting place while on an inspection tour of earth.

    Ngai then took the first man, Gikuyu, to the top to point out the beauty of the land he was giving him. These first parents were so respected to be treated almost like God himself.

    These were followed by the ancestors of the people who inherited life force from the first parents, then followed by the immediate dead and finally the eldest in the community.

    Hence when people wanted to offer sacrifices, the eldest in the community would perform the rites. Children in the community had a link to God through their parents and that chain would move upwards to parent parents, ancestors, first created parents until it reaches God Himself.

    They also believed that some people possessed power to manipulate the inner force in all things. They also believed that ordinary items can have their spiritual powers increased such that they protect a person against those bent on diminishing a person vital life force.

    Further, time was recorded through the initiation by circumcision. Each initiation group was given a special name. Before a regiment or army was set, there was a period in which no initiation of boys took place.

    This was the system adopted in Metumi Murang'a. The regiment or army sets also get special names, some of which seem to have ended up as popular male names.

    Several regiments then make up a ruling generation. It was estimated that ruling generations lasted an average of 35 years.

    The ruling generations are however uniform and provide very important chronological data. According to Hobley a historian each initiation generation, riika , extended over two years.

    The ruling generation at the arrival of the Europeans was called Maina. It is said that Maina handed over to Mwangi in On top of the ruling generations, he also gives names of the regiments or army sets from [within a margin of error] and the names of annual initiation sets beginning The remarkable thing in this list in comparison to the Metumi one is how some of the same names are used, if a bit offset.

    It should however be noted that Gaki had a strong connection to the Maasai living nearby. This would call into question, when it was exactly that children started being named after the parents of one's parents.

    Had that system, of naming one's children after one's parents been there from the beginning, there would be very few male names in circulation.

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